Organic and Molecular Electronics
Crystals and films of conjugated molecules transport charge and can be used as functional semiconductors in thin film transistors, photovoltaic cells and light-emitting diodes. My research program focuses on understanding connections between structure and electrical transport behavior in organic semiconductors. We are particularly interested in the dependence of electron and hole mobility (the velocity per unit electric field) on molecular structure, crystal packing, intermolecular bonding, and defects in organic crystals and films. A theme of our experimental investigations is the development of methods for measuring transport behavior on length scales spanning nanometers to microns, so that we can accurately characterize the effects of specific structural features on transport. For example, we have used high resolution scanning probe microscopy techniques to measure electrical resistances and potential variations associated with individual grain boundaries in organic semiconductor films. Students are also actively involved in the fabrication and electrical characterization of organic transistors using electron beam lithography and other semiconductor processing equipment in the Microtechnology Laboratory. In collaboration with students and faculty in the chemistry and physics departments, we are actively exploring the synthesis and characterization of novel organic semiconductor materials with enhanced transport properties.
We are also interested in electrical transport through individual molecules. A key issue in molecular electronics is how one "wires up" single molecules or groups of molecules. We use conducting probe atomic force microscopy to contact small numbers of molecules and to test their electrical properties. Questions of interest include how the current-voltage characteristics of these molecular junctions depend on molecular size, bonding and functional group architecture, and the nature of the metal-molecule contacts.
- “Self-aligned capillarity-assisted printing of top-gate thin-film transistors on plastic", Hyun, W.J.; Secor, E.B.; Bidoky, F.Z.; Walker, S.B.; Lewis, J.A. Hersam, M.C.; Francis, L.F.; Frisbie, C.D. Flexible and Printed Electronics, 2018, 3, 035004. DOI: 10.1088/2058-8585/aad476
- “Crystal step edges can trap electrons on the surfaces of n-type organic semiconductors”, He, T.; Wu, Y.F.; D’Avino, G.; Schmidt, E.; Stolte, M.; Cornil, J.; Beljonne, D.; Ruden, P.P.; Wurthner, F.; Frisbie, C.D. Nature Commun., 2018, 9, 2141. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-04479-z
- “Critical assessment of charge mobility extraction in FETs", Choi, H. H.; Cho, K.; Frisbie, C. D.; Sirringhaus, H.; Podzorov, V., Nature Materials, 2018, 17 (1), 2-7. DOI: 10.1038/nmat5035
- "Detection and Sourcing of Gluten in Grain with Multiple Floating-Gate Transistor Biosensors", White, S. P.; Frisbie, C. D.; Dorfman, K. D., ACS Sensors, 2018, 3 (2), 395-402. DOI: 10.1021/acssensors.7b00810
- "Field Effect Modulation of Heterogeneous Charge Transfer Kinetics at Back-Gated Two-Dimensional MoS2 Electrodes", Wang, Y.; Kim, C. H.; Yoo, Y.; Johns, J. E.; Frisbie, C. D., Nano Lett., 2017, 17 (12), 7586-7592. DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b03564
- "Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy Reveals Planar Defects Are Sources of Electronic Disorder in Organic Semiconductor Crystals", Wu, Y. F.; Ren, X. L.; McGarry, K. A.; Bruzek, M. J.; Douglas, C. J.; Frisbie, C. D., Advanced Electronic Materials, 2017, 3 (7). DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201700117
- "Effect of Heteroatom Substitution on Transport in Alkanedithiol-Based Molecular Tunnel Junctions: Evidence for Universal Behavior." Xie, Z; Baldea, I; Oram, S; Smith, CE; Frisbie, CD. ACS Nano, 2017, 11(1), 569-578. DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b06623.
- "Exceptionally Small Statistical Variations in the Transport Properties of Metal-Molecule-Metal Junctions Composed of 80 Oligophenylene Dithiol Molecules." Xie, Z; Baldea, I; Demissie, AT; Smith, CE; Wu, Y; Haugstad, G; Frisbie, CD. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2017, 139(16), 5696-5699. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b01918.
- "Negative Isotope Effect on Field-Effect Hole Transport in Fully Substituted C-13-Rubrene." Ren, X; Bruzek, MJ; Hanifi, DA; Schulzetenberg, A; Wu, Y; Kim, C; Zhang, Z; Johns, JE; Salleo, A; Fratini, S; Troisi, A; Douglas, CJ; Frisbie, CD. Adv. Electron. Mater., 2017, 3(4), 1700018. DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201700018.
- "Charge Transport in 4 nm Molecular Wires with Interrupted Conjugation: Combined Experimental and Computational Evidence for Thermally Assisted Polaron Tunneling." Taherinia, D; Smith, CE; Ghosh, S; Odoh, SO; Balhorn, L; Gagliardi, L; Cramer, CJ; Frisbie, CD. ACS Nano, 2016, 10(4), 4372-4383. DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b08126.
- "Field Effect Modulation of Outer-Sphere Electrochemistry at Back Gated, Ultrathin ZnO Electrodes." Kim, C; Frisbie, CD. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138(23), 7220-7223. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b02547.
- "Multicolored, Low-Power, Flexible Electrochromic Devices Based on Ion Gels." Moon, HC; Kim, C; Lodge, TP; Frisbie, CD. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2016, 8(9), 6252-6260. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b01307.
- "Strain Effects on the Work Function of an Organic Semiconductor." Wu, Y; Chew, AR; Rojas, GA; Sini, G; Haugstad, G; Belianinov, A; Kalinin, SV; Li, H; Risko, C; Bredas, J; Salleo, A; Frisbie, CD. Nat Commun, 2016, 7. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10270.
- "Operating and Sensing Mechanism of Electrolyte-Gated Transistors with Floating Gates: Building a Platform for Amplified Biodetection." White, SP; Dorfman, KD; Frisbie, CD. J. Phys. Chem. C, 2016, 120(1), 108-117. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b10694.
- "Uncovering a Law of Corresponding States for Electron Tunneling in Molecular Junctions." Baldea, I; Xie, Z; Frisbie, CD. Nanoscale, 2015, 7(23), 10465-10471. DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02225h.