Our research is directed to the determination of reaction distributions on heterogeneous electrochemical surfaces. This has led to the investigations of oxide films on Ti, and we have reported the first in situ measurements of grazing incidence angle X-ray scattering and reflectivity of anodic oxide films in aqueous solutions. More recently we have developed microscopy techniques with which to study 'precursor' sites for localized breakdowns of the oxide films on aluminum and titanium metal surfaces. To obtain high resolution that approaches 10 nm, we have developed a novel microscope (f-NSOM) that enables more than five modes of scanning and functional mapping. This enables studies of reaction distributions in liquids or gases on electrochemically active surfaces. Corrosion, electrocatalysis, and intercalation reactions will be mapped in situ with the novel (f-NSOM) technique. Coupling microscopy with finite element modeling of electrochemical systems is a continuing interest in our group.
We also carry out research on the electrochemistry of fuel cells, and sol-gel processing of transition metal oxides and their electrochemical properties as intercalation hosts.
- "Reactivity of surfaces and imaging with functional NSOM," T.L. Knutson, F. Guillaume, W-J. Lee, M. Alhoshan, W.H. Smyrl, Electrochimica Acta 48 (2003) 3229-3237.
- "Exploratory Spectroscopic Imaging at Localized Corrosion Sites," F. Guillaume, J. Evju, T.L. Knutson, and W.H. Smyrl, J. Electrochem. Soc. 150(6) (2003) B262-B265.
- "Lithium-Zeolite Composite Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells," B. Libby, W.H. Smyrl, and E.L. Cussler, AIChE Journal 49(4) (2003) 991-1001.
- "Lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate acetonitrile adduct," N.R. Brooks, W.A. Henderson, and W.H. Smyrl, Acta Cryst. E58 (2002) m176-m177.
- "Polymeric [Li(NO3) (monoglyme)]n" W.A. Henderson, N.R. Brooks, and W.H. Smyrl, Acta Cryst. 58 (2002) m500-m501.
- "Miniature Fuel Cells Fabricated on Silicon Substrates" (with S.C. Kelley and G.A. Deluga), AIChE J. 48(5), 1071 (2002).
- "Absorption of Polarized X-Rays by V2O5-Based Cathodes for Lithium Batteries: An Application" (with M. Giorgetti, M. Berrettoni, and S. Passerini), Electrochim. Acta 47, 3163 (2002).
- "Influence of Processing Conditions on Structures of 3D Ordered Macroporous Metals Prepared by Colloidal Crystal Templating," H. Yan, C.F. Blanford, J.C. Lytle, C.B. Carter, W.H. Smyrl, and A. Stein, Chem Mater 13 (2001) 4314-4321.
- "Nanocomposites of V2O5 Aerogel and RuO2 as Cathode Materials for Lithium Intercalation" (with F. Zhang, S. Passerini, and B.B. Owens), Electrochem. and Solid State Letts. 4(12), A221 (2001).
- "Composite Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells" (with B. Libby and E. L. Cussler), Electrochem. and Solid State Letts. 4(12), A197 (2001).
- "Evidence for Reversible Formation of Metallic Cu in Cu0.1V2O5 Xerogel Cathodes During Interclation Cycling of Li+ Ions as Detected by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy" (with M. Giorgetti, S. Mukerjee, S. Passerini, and J. McBreen), J. Electrochem. Soc. 148(7), A768 (2001).
- "Electrochemical and Synchrotron XAS Studies of Lithium Intercalation Into Vanadium Pentoxie Aerogels and Nanocomposites," W.H. Smyrl, S. Passerini, M. Giorgetti, F. Coustier, M.M.Fay, B.B. Owens, J. Power Sources 97-98 (2001) 469-472.
- "Effect of Alloying Cu on the Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels in Chloride Media," T. Ujiro, S. Satoh, R.W. Staehle, and W.H. Smyrl, Corros. Sci., 43 (2001) 2185-2200.
- "Fluorescence and Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy for Investigating Initiation of Localized Corrosion of A1 2024" (with M. Buchler, J. Kerimo, and F. Guillaume), J. Electrochem. Soc. 147(10), 3691 (2000).
- "Nanoporous Amorphous Manganese Dioxide as an Extremely Versatile Intercalation Host," J. Xu, B.B. Owens, W.H. Smyrl, Proc. Power Sources Conf. 39 (2000) 533-536.
- "A Miniature Methanol/Air Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell", S.C. Kelley, G.A. Deluga, and W.H. Smyrl, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 3 (2000) 407-409.
- "Modulation Imaging in Reflection-Mode Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy", J. Kerimo, M. Büchler, and W.H. Smyrl, Ultramicroscopy Letter 84 (2000) 127-131.
- "Preparation and Structure of 3D Ordered Macroporous Alloys by PMMA Colloidal Crystal Templating", H. Yan, C.F. Blandford, W.H. Smyrl, and A. Stein, The Royal Society of Chemistry 2000 (2000) 1477-1478.
- "Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy with Shear Force Feedback: Investigation of the Lateral Resolution of Different Experimental Configurations", M. Büchler, S.C. Kelley, and W.H. Smyrl, Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 3 (2000) 35-38.
- "Investigation of the Initiation of Localized Corrosion on Aluminum Alloys by Using Fluorescence Microscopy", M. Büchler, T. Watari, and W.H. Smyrl, Corrosion Science 42 (2000) 1661-1668.
- "Evidence of Bilayer Structure in V2O5 Xerogel", M. Giorgetti, S. Passerini, W.H. Smyrl, and M. Berrettoni, Inorganic Chemistry 39 (2000) 1514-1517.
- "Application of a Near Field Scanning Optical Microscope and Modifications Thereof to the Characterization of Corrosion", M. Büchler, J. Kerimo, F. Guillaume, and W.H. Smyrl, Localized In-Situ Methods for Investigating Electrochemical Interfaces Proc. - Electrochem. Soc., 99-28 (2000) 78-88.
- "High Resolution In-Situ Images of Reacting Surfaces", W.H. Smyrl, M. Büchler, L. Garfias-Mesias, and J. Kerimo, Localized In-Situ Methods for Investigating Electrochemical Interfaces Proc. - Electrochem. Soc., 99-28 (2000) 55-65.
- "General Synthesis of Periodic Macroporous Solids by Templated Salt Precipitation and Chemical Conversion", H. Yan, C.F. Blanford, B.T. Holland, W.H. Smyrl, and A. Stein, Chem. Mater. 12(4) (2000) 1134-1141.